This is a family of large butterflies - the Swallowtails. There are 15 species in Singapore - 6 Papilio, 4 Graphium, 2 birdwings and one each of rose, mime and swordtail.
Lime Butterfly (Papilio demoleus malayanus)
The upperside is black with mainly pale spots except for two red spots, whereas the underside is distinctively patterned with mainly pale, black and orange.
Great Mormon (Papilio memnon agenor)
Male ©Eddy Lee
Common Mormon (Papilio polytes romulus)
The male is black with small white spots on forewings and large white spots on hindwings. The female also has red spots on the hindwings. It mimics the Common Rose, which is distasteful to predators. However, the Common Mormon has a black body, whereas the Common Rose has a red body.
Blue Jay (Graphium evemon eventus)
Similar to the Common Jay, but lacks the red spot in the middle of the underwings.
Common Bluebottle (Graphium sarpedon luctatius)
This species has a large green-blue triangle on each black wing (both upper and under). The Banded Swallowtail look similar, but has a "tail" on each hindwing.
Common Birdwing (Troides helena cerberus)
This is an unmistakable butterfly with yellow hindwings, black forewings, yellow abdomen, red thorax ad black head.
Common Rose (Pachliopta aristolochiae)
The red body and red spots on the mostly black wings distinguishes it from the other swallowtail butterflies. It also has some white patterns on its wings. There are 2 subspecies in Singapore. The white patch on the hind underwing of the Common Rose (P. a. asteris) distinguishes it from the Black Rose (P. a. antiphus).
Common Mime (Chilasa clytia clytia)
This is the only butterfly in Singapore with black-and-white wings as well as body.
Five Bar Swallowtail (Pathysa antiphates itamputi)
A distinctive butterfly and a very colourful one.