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Monday, October 15, 2012

Butterflies

Rhopalocera


This taxon contains all the butterflies. There are three superfamilies - True Butterflies, Skippers and American Moth-like Butterflies. Singapore only has the first two. These are insects with with two pairs of large colourful wings. However, not all of them are colourful. The wings are covered with scales. They go through three main stages of life - larval (caterpillar), pupal and adult. Butterflies are generally more colourful than moths. They are generally daytime insects, whereas moths are generally nocturnal. Butterflies generally have club-shaped antennae, while moths generally have feathered antennae.


Caterpillar. Caterpillar at Rifle Range ©Eddy Lee

Family Papilionidae, Subfamily Papilioninae

  1. Common Birdwing (Troides helena cerberus)
  2. Malayan Birdwing (Troides amphrysus ruficollis)
  3. Common Rose (Pachliopta aristolochiae asteris)
  4. Common Mime (Chilasa clytia clytia)
  5. Lime Butterfly (Papilio demoleus malayanus)
  6. Banded Swallowtail (Papilio demolion demolion)
  7. Red Helen (Papilio helenus helenus)
  8. Great Helen (Papilio iswara iswara)
  9. Great Mormon (Papilio memnon agenor)
  10. Common Mormon (Papilio polytes romulus)
  11. Blue Helen (Papilio prexaspes prexaspes)
  12. Tailed Jay (Graphium agamemnon agamemnon)
  13. Striped Jay (Graphium bathycles bathycloides)
  14. Common Jay (Graphium doson evemonides)
  15. Great Jay (Graphium euryplus mecisteus)
  16. Blue Jay (Graphium evemon eventus)
  17. Common Bluebottle (Graphium sarpedon luctatius)
  18. Five Bar Swordtail (Pathysa antiphates itamputi)

Family Pieridae, Subfamily Pierinae

  1. Painted Jezebel (Delias hyparete metarete)
  2. Red Base Jezebel (Delias pasithoe parthenope)
  3. Redspot Sawtooth (Prioneris philonome themana)
  4. Psyche (Leptosia nina malayana)
  5. Cabbage White (Pieris canidia canidia)
  6. Striped Albatross (Appias libythea olferna)
  7. Chocolate Albatross (Appias lyncida vasava)
  8. Lesser Albatross (Appias paulina distanti)
  9. Plain Puffin (Appias indra plana)
  10. Great Orange Tip (Hebomoia glaucippe aturia)
  11. Wanderer (Pareronia valeria lutescens)
  12. Malaysian Albatross (Saletara panda distanti)

Family Pieridae, Subfamily Coliadinae

  1. Lemon Emigrant (Catopsilia pomona pomona)
  2. Mottled Emigrant (Catopsilia pyranthe pyranthe)
  3. Orange Emigrant (Catopsilia scylla cornelia)
  4. Anderson's Grass Yellow (Eurema andersonii andersonii)
  5. Three Spot Grass Yellow (Eurema blanda snelleni)
  6. No Brand Grass Yellow (Eurema brigitta senna)
  7. Common Grass Yellow (Eurema hecabe contubernalis)
  8. Chocolate Grass Yellow (Eurema sari sodalis)
  9. Hill Grass Yellow (Eurema simulatrix tecmessa)
  10. Tree Yellow (Gandaca harina distanti)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Danainae

  1. Plain Tiger (Danaus chrysippus chrysippus)
  2. Common Tiger (Danaus genutia genutia)
  3. Black Veined Tiger (Danaus melanippus hegesippus)
  4. Yellow Glassy Tiger (Parantica aspasia aspasia)
  5. Dark Glassy Tiger (Parantica agleoides agleoides)
  6. Blue Glassy Tiger (Ideopsis vulgaris macrina)
  7. Mangrove Tree Nymph (Idea leuconoe chersonesia)
  8. Common Tree Nymph (Idea stolli logani)
  9. Malayan Crow (Euploea camaralzeman malayica)
  10. Spotted Black Crow (Euploea crameri bremeri)
  11. Striped Black Crow (Euploea eyndhovii gardineri)
  12. Blue Spotted Crow (Euploea midamus singapura)
  13. Striped Blue Crow (Euploea mulciber mulciber)
  14. King Crow (Euploea phaenareta castelnaui)
  15. Magpie Crow (Euploea radamanthus radamanthus)
  16. Dwarf Crow (Euploea tulliolus ledereri)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Satyrinae

  1. Common Evening Brown (Melanitis leda leda)
  2. Common Palmfly (Elymnias hypermnestra agina)
  3. Tawny Palmfly (Elymnias panthera panthera)
  4. Pointed Palmfly (Elymnias penanga penanga)
  5. Bamboo Tree Brown (Lethe europa malaya)
  6. Malayan Bush Brown (Mycalesis fusca fusca)
  7. Dark Brand Bush Brown (Mycalesis mineus macromalayana)
  8. Purple Bush Brown (Mycalesis orseis nautilus)
  9. Burmese Bush Brown (Mycalesis perseoides perseoides)
  10. Dingy Bush Brown (Mycalesis perseus cepheus)
  11. Long Brand Bush Brown (Mycalesis visala phamis)
  12. Nigger (Orsotriaena medus cinerea)
  13. Common Five Ring (Ypthima baldus newboldi)
  14. Straight-banded Five Ring (Ypthima fasciata torone)
  15. Malayan Five Ring (Ypthima horsfieldii humei)
  16. Common Four Ring (Ypthima huebneri)
  17. Common Three Ring (Ypthima pandocus corticaria)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Morphinae

  1. Common Faun (Faunis canens arcesilas)
  2. Palm King (Amathusia phidippus phidippus)
  3. Saturn (Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus)
  4. Dark Blue Jungle Glory (Thaumantis klugius lucipor)
  5. Common Duffer (Discophora sondaica despoliata)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Nymphalinae

  1. Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui)
  2. Indian Red Admiral (Vanessa indica indica)
  3. Malayan Eggfly (Hypolimnas anomala anomala)
  4. Common Eggfly (Hypolimnas bolina): 2 subsp. bolina and jacintha
  5. Danaid Eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus misippus)
  6. Autumn Leaf (Doleschallia bisaltide): 2 subsp. australis and pratipa
  7. Peacock Pansy (Junonia almana javana)
  8. Grey Pansy (Junonia atlites atlites)
  9. Chocolate Pansy (Junonia hedonia ida)
  10. Blue Pansy (Junonia orithya wallacei)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Heliconiinae

  1. Tawny Coster (Acraea violae)
  2. Leopard Lacewing (Cethosia cyane)
  3. Malay Lacewing (Cethosia hypsea hypsina)
  4. Plain Lacewing (Cethosia penthesilea methypsea)
  5. Leopard (Phalanta phalantha phalantha)
  6. Rustic (Cupha erymanthis lotis)
  7. Banded Yeoman (Cirrochroa orissa orissa)
  8. Cruiser (Vindula dejone erotella)
  9. Royal Assyrian (Terinos terpander robertsia)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Limenitidinae

  1. Commander (Moduza procris milonia)
  2. Knight (Lebadea martha): 2 subsp. parkeri and malayana
  3. Common Jester (Symbrenthia hippoclus selangorana)
  4. Studded Sergeant (Athyma asura idita)
  5. Dot-Dash Sergeant (Athyma kanwa kanwa)
  6. Colour Sergeant (Athyma nefte subrata)
  7. Lance Sergeant (Athyma pravara helma)
  8. Malay Staff Sergeant (Athyma reta moorei)
  9. The Colonel (Pandita sinope sinope)
  10. Chocolate Sailor (Neptis harita harita)
  11. Common Sailor (Neptis hylas papaja)
  12. Grey Sailor (Neptis leucoporos cresina)
  13. Short-banded Sailor (Phaedyma columella singa)
  14. Burmese Lascar (Lasippa heliodore dorelia)
  15. Malayan Lascar (Lasippa tiga siaka)
  16. Common Lascar (Pantoporia hordonia hordonia)
  17. Perak Lascar (Pantoporia paraka paraka)
  18. Malay Viscount (Tanaecia pelea pelea)
  19. Horsfield's Baron (Tanaecia iapis puseda)
  20. Baron (Euthalia aconthea gurda)
  21. Green Baron (Euthalia adonia pinwilli)
  22. White Tipped Baron (Euthalia merta merta)
  23. Malay Baron (Euthalia monina monina)
  24. Yellow Archduke (Lexias canescens pardalina)
  25. Black Archduke (Lexias dirtea merguia)
  26. Archduke (Lexias pardalis dirteana)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Cyrestinae

  1. Little Maplet (Chersonesia peraka peraka)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Apaturinae

  1. Purple Duke (Eulaceura osteria kumana)
  2. Courtesan (Euripus nyctelius euploeoides)

Family Nymphalidae, Subfamily Charaxinae

  1. Black Rajah (Charaxes solon echo)
  2. Plain Nawab (Polyura hebe plautus)
  3. Blue Nawab (Polyura schreiber tisamenus)

Family Riodinidae

  1. Spotted Judy (Abisara geza niya)
  2. Malay Tailed Judy (Abisara savitri savitri)
  3. Malayan Plum Judy (Abisara saturata kausambioides)
  4. Lesser Harlequin (Laxita thuisto thuisto)
  5. Harlequin (Taxila haquinus haquinus)

Family Lycaenidae, Subfamily Poritiinae

  1. Malayan Gem (Poritia philota philota)
  2. Sumatran Gem (Poritia sumatrae sumatrae)

Family Lycaenidae, Subfamily Miletinae

  1. Moth Butterfly (Liphyra brassolis abbreviata)
  2. Bigg's Brownie (Miletus biggsii biggsii)
  3. Brown-band Brownie (Miletus gopara gopara)
  4. Great Brownie (Miletus symethus petronius )
  5. Lesser Darkie (Allotinus unicolor unicolor)
  6. Pale Mottle (Logania marmorata damis)
  7. Apefly (Spalgis epius epius)

Family Lycaenidae, Subfamily Curetinae

  1. Malayan Sunbeam (Curetis santana malayica)
  2. Sumatran Sunbeam (Curetis saronis sumatrana)

Family Lycaenidae, Subfamily Lycaeninae

  1. Common Hedge Blue (Acytolepis puspa lambi)
  2. Common Pierrot (Castalius rosimon rosimon)
  3. Elbowed Pierrot (Caleta elna elvira)
  4. Quaker (Neopithecops zalmora zalmora)
  5. The Malayan (Megisba malaya sikkima)
  6. Lesser Grass Blue (Zizina otis lampa)
  7. Pygmy Grass Blue (Zizula hylax pygmaea)
  8. Pale Grass Blue (Zizeeria maha serica)
  9. Cycad Blue (Chilades pandava pandava)
  10. Indian Cupid (Everes lacturnus rileyi)
  11. Gram Blue (Euchrysops cnejus cnejus)
  12. Silver Royal (Ancema blanka blanka)
  13. Ciliate Blue (Anthene emolus goberus)
  14. Pointed Ciliate Blue (Anthene lycaenina miya)
  15. Forget-Me-Not (Catochrysops strabo strabo)
  16. Silver Forget-Me-Not (Catochrysops panormus exiguus)
  17. Ancyra Blue (Catopyrops ancyra)
  18. Pea Blue or Long-tailed Blue (Lampides boeticus)
  19. Pitcher Blue (Virachola kessuma deliochus)
  20. Metallic Caerulean (Jamides alecto ageladas)
  21. Dark Caerulean (Jamides bochus nabonassar)
  22. Sky Blue (Jamides caeruleus caeruleus)
  23. Common Caerulean (Jamides celeno aelianus)
  24. Glistering Caerulean (Jamides elpis pseudelpis)
  25. Solider Caerulean (Jamides malaccanus malaccanus)
  26. White Fourline Blue (Nacaduba angusta kerriana)
  27. Rounded Sixline Blue (Nacaduba berenice icena)
  28. Opaque Sixline Blue (Nacaduba beroe neon)
  29. Two Spotted Line Blue (Nacaduba biocellata)
  30. Dark Malayan Sixline Blue (Nacaduba calauria malayica)
  31. Transparent Sixline Blue (Nacaduba kurava nemana)
  32. Large Fourline Blue (Nacaduba pactolus odon)
  33. Small Fourline Blue (Nacaduba pavana singapura)
  34. Jewel Fourline Blue (Nacaduba sanaya elioti)
  35. Pointed Line Blue (Ionolyce helicon merguiana)
  36. Barred Line Blue (Prosotas aluta nanda)
  37. Tailless Line Blue (Prosotas dubiosa lumpura)
  38. Banded Line Blue (Prosotas lutea sivoka)
  39. Common Line Blue (Prosotas nora superdates)
  40. Dingy Line Blue (Petrelaea dana dana)
  41. Long Banded Silverline (Spindasis lohita senama)
  42. Black Banded Silverline (Spindasis syama terana)
  43. Aberrant Oakblue (Arhopala abseus abseus)
  44. Large Metallic Oakblue (Arhopala aedias agnis)
  45. Purple Broken-band Oakblue (Arhopala alitaeus pardenas)
  46. Malayan Bushblue (Arhopala ammon ammon)
  47. Broad Yellow Oakblue (Arhopala amphimuta amphimuta)
  48. Small Tailless Oakblue (Arhopala antimuta antimuta)
  49. Vinous Oakblue (Arhopala athada athada)
  50. Tailed Disc Oakblue (Arhopala atosia malayana)
  51. Long-celled Oakblue (Arhopala aurea )
  52. Centaur Oakblue (Arhopala centaurus nakula)
  53. Common Disc Oakblue (Arhopala epimuta epiala)
  54. Green Oakblue (Arhopala eumolphus maxwelli)
  55. Major Yellow Oakblue (Arhopala major major)
  56. Mutal Oakblue (Arhopala muta maranda)
  57. Malayan Oakblue (Arhopala myrzala lammas)
  58. Raffles's Oakblue (Arhopala pseudomuta pseudomuta)
  59. Sylhet Oakblue (Arhopala silhetensis adorea)
  60. Green Suffused Oakblue (Arhopala trogon)
  61. Darky Plushblue (Flos anniella anniella)
  62. Plain Plushblue (Flos apidanus saturatus)
  63. Bifid Plushblue (Flos diardi capeta)
  64. Shining Plushblue (Flos fulgida singhapura)
  65. The Red-edge (Semanga superba deliciosa)
  66. Acacia Blue (Surendra vivarna amisena)
  67. Malayan Silverstreak (Iraota distanti distanti)
  68. Scarce Silverstreak (Iraota rochana boswelliana)
  69. Common Posy (Drupadia ravindra moorei)
  70. Pygmy Posy (Drupadia rufotaenia rufotaenia)
  71. Dark Posy (Drupadia theda thesmia)
  72. Gray Tinsel(Catapaecilma major emas)
  73. Yamfly (Loxura atymnus fuconius)
  74. The Plane (Bindahara phocides phocides)
  75. Common Imperial (Cheritra freja frigga)
  76. Branded Imperial (Eooxylides tharis distanti)
  77. Great Imperial (Jacoona anasuja anasuja)
  78. Grand Imperial (Neocheritra amrita amrita)
  79. Green Imperial (Manto hypoleuca terana)
  80. Fluffy Tit (Zeltus amasa maximinianus)
  81. Common Tit (Hypolycaena erylus teatus)
  82. Brown Tit (Hypolycaena thecloides thecloides)
  83. Narrow Spark (Sinthusa nasaka amba)
  84. Ambon Onyx (Horaga syrinx maenala)
  85. White Royal (Pratapa deva relata)
  86. Peacock Royal (Tajuria cippus maxentius)
  87. Influent Royal (Tajuria dominus dominus)
  88. Felder's Royal (Tajuria mantra mantra)
  89. Banded Royal (Rachana jalindra burbona)
  90. Chocolate Royal (Remelana jangala travana)
  91. Golden Royal (Pseudotajuria donatana donatana)
  92. Eliot's Cornelian (Deudorix elioti)
  93. Cornelian (Deudorix epijarbas cinnabarus)
  94. Scarlet Flash (Rapala dieneces dieneces)
  95. Yellow Flash (Rapala domitia domitia)
  96. Common Red Flash (Rapala iarbus iarbus)
  97. Slate Flash (Rapala manea chozeba)
  98. Copper Flash (Rapala pheretima sequeira)
  99. Suffused Flash (Rapala suffusa barthema)
  100. Indigo Flash (Rapala varuna orseis)

Family Hesperiidae, Subfamily Coeliadinae

  1. Great Orange Awlet (Burara etelka)
  2. Orange Awlet (Burara harisa consobrina)
  3. Orange-Tail Awl (Bibasis sena uniformis)
  4. Common Awl (Hasora badra badra)
  5. Common Banded Awl (Hasora chromus chromus)
  6. Yellow Banded Awl (Hasora schoenherr chuza)
  7. White Banded Awl (Hasora taminatus malayana)
  8. Plain Banded Awl (Hasora vitta vitta)
  9. Brown Awl (Badamia exclamationis)

Family Hesperiidae, Subfamily Pyrginae

  1. Dark Flat (Tapena thwaitesi bornea)
  2. Hieroglyphic Flat (Odina hieroglyphica ortina)
  3. Fulvous Pied Flat (Pseudocoladenia dan dhyana)
  4. Black and White Flat (Gerosis limax dirae)
  5. Yellow Flat (Mooreana trichoneura trichoneura)
  6. White-banded Flat (Celaenorrhinus asmara asmara)
  7. Malayan Snow Flat (Tagiades calligana)
  8. Large Snow Flat (Tagiades gana gana)
  9. Common Snow Flat (Tagiades japetus atticus)
  10. Ultra Snow Flat (Tagiades ultra)
  11. Chestnut Angle (Odontoptilum angulatum angulatum)

Family Hesperiidae, Subfamily Hesperiinae

  1. Bush Hopper (Ampittia dioscorides camertes)
  2. Dark Banded Ace (Halpe ormenes vilasina)
  3. Chestnut Bob (Iambrix salsala salsala)
  4. Starry Bob (Iambrix stellifer)
  5. Chocolate Demon (Ancistroides nigrita maura)
  6. Forest Hopper (Astictopterus jama jama)
  7. Banded Demon (Notocrypta paralysos varians)
  8. Grass Demon (Udaspes folus)
  9. White Palm Bob (Suastus everyx everyx)
  10. Palm Bob (Suastus gremius gremius)
  11. Prominent Spot Flitter (Zographetus doxus)
  12. Tree Flitter (Hyarotis adrastus praba)
  13. Dubious Bar Flitter (Quedara monteithi monteithi)
  14. Chequered Lancer (Plastingia naga)
  15. Yellow Chequered Lancer (Plastingia pellonia)
  16. Yellow Streak Darter (Salanoemia tavoyana)
  17. Pugnacious Lancer (Pemara pugnans)
  18. Yellow Vein Lancer (Pyroneura latoia latoia)
  19. Storey's Palmer (Zela storeyi)
  20. Banded Redeye (Gangara lebadea lebadea)
  21. Giant Redeye (Gangara thyrsis thyrsis)
  22. Common Redeye (Matapa aria)
  23. Giant Skipper (Erionota torus)
  24. Banana Skipper (Erionota thrax thrax)
  25. White Tipped Skipper (Erionota hiraca apicalis)
  26. Hoary Palmer (Unkana ambasa batara)
  27. Coconut Skipper (Hidari irava)
  28. White-spotted Palmer (Eetion elia)
  29. Yellow Grass Dart (Taractrocera archias quinta)
  30. Spotted Grass Dart (Taractrocera ardonia lamia)
  31. Common Dartlet (Oriens gola pseudolus)
  32. Malay Dartlet (Oriens paragola)
  33. Ganda Dart (Potanthus ganda)
  34. Lesser Dart (Potanthus omaha omaha)
  35. Detached Dart (Potanthus trachala tytleri)
  36. Large Dart (Potanthus serina)
  37. Plain Palm Dart (Cephrenes acalle niasicus)
  38. Yellow Palm Dart (Cephrenes trichopepla)
  39. Palm Dart (Telicota augias augias)
  40. Besta Palm Dart (Telicota besta bina)
  41. Common Palm Dart (Telicota colon stinga)
  42. Linna Palm Dart (Telicota linna)
  43. Bengal Swift (Pelopidas agna agna )
  44. Great Swift (Pelopidas assamensis)
  45. Conjoined Swift (Pelopidas conjunctus conjunctus)
  46. Small Branded Swift (Pelopidas mathias mathias)
  47. Formosan Swift (Borbo cinnara cinnara)
  48. Contiguous Swift (Polytremis lubricans lubricans)
  49. Bamboo Paintbrush Swift (Baoris farri farri)
  50. Paintbrush Swift (Baoris oceia)
  51. Full Stop Swift (Caltoris cormasa)
  52. Philippine Swift (Caltoris philippina philippina)
  53. Malayan Swift (Caltoris malaya)

References

http://www.geocities.com/rainforest/vines/2382/
http://butterflycircle.blogspot.com/

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