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Thursday, October 25, 2012

Nymphalids

Family Nymphalidae

This family is the most widespread of butterfly families.

Subfamily Danainae
Plain Tiger (Danaus chrysippus chrysippus) Common Tiger (Danaus genutia genutia) Black Veined Tiger (Danaus melanippus hegesippus) Yellow Glassy Tiger (Parantica aspasia aspasia)
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Dark Glassy Tiger (Parantica agleoides agleoides) Blue Glassy Tiger (Ideopsis vulgaris macrina) Mangrove Tree Nymph (Idea leuconoe chersonesia) Common Tree Nymph (Idea stolli logani)
Malayan Crow (Euploea camaralzeman malayica) Spotted Black Crow (Euploea crameri bremeri) Striped Black Crow (Euploea eyndhovii gardineri) Blue Spotted Crow (Euploea midamus singapura)
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Striped Blue Crow (Euploea mulciber mulciber) King Crow (Euploea phaenareta castelnaui) Magpie Crow (Euploea radamanthus radamanthus) Dwarf Crow (Euploea tulliolus ledereri)
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Subfamily Satyrinae
Common Evening Brown (Melanitis leda leda) Common Palmfly (Elymnias hypermnestra agina) Tawny Palmfly (Elymnias panthera panthera) Pointed Palmfly (Elymnias penanga penanga)
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Bamboo Tree Brown (Lethe europa malaya) Malayan Bush Brown (Mycalesis fusca fusca) Dark Brand Bush Brown (Mycalesis mineus macromalayana) Purple Bush Brown (Mycalesis orseis nautilus)
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Burmese Bush Brown (Mycalesis perseoides perseoides) Dingy Bush Brown (Mycalesis perseus cepheus) Long Brand Bush Brown (Mycalesis visala phamis) Nigger (Orsotriaena medus cinerea)
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Common Five Ring (Ypthima baldus newboldi) Straight-banded Five Ring (Ypthima fasciata torone) Malayan Five Ring (Ypthima horsfieldii humei) Common Four Ring (Ypthima huebneri)
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Common Three Ring (Ypthima pandocus corticaria)
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Subfamily Morphinae
Common Faun (Faunis canens arcesilas) Palm King (Amathusia phidippus phidippus) Saturn (Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus) Dark Blue Jungle Glory (Thaumantis klugius lucipor) Common Duffer (Discophora sondaica despoliata)
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Subfamily Nymphalinae
Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui) Indian Red Admiral (Vanessa indica indica) Malayan Eggfly (Hypolimnas anomala anomala) Common Eggfly (Hypolimnas bolina)
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Danaid Eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus misippus) Autumn Leaf (Doleschallia bisaltide) Peacock Pansy (Junonia almana javana) Grey Pansy (Junonia atlites atlites)
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Chocolate Pansy (Junonia hedonia ida) Blue Pansy (Junonia orithya wallacei)

Subfamily Heliconiinae
Tawny Coster (Acraea violae) Leopard Lacewing (Cethosia cyane) Malay Lacewing (Cethosia hypsea hypsina)
Plain Lacewing (Cethosia penthesilea methypsea) Leopard (Phalanta phalantha phalantha) Rustic (Cupha erymanthis lotis)
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Banded Yeoman (Cirrochroa orissa orissa) Cruiser (Vindula dejone erotella) Royal Assyrian (Terinos terpander robertsia)
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Subfamily Limenitidinae
Commander (Moduza procris milonia) Knight (Lebadea martha) Common Jester (Symbrenthia hippoclus selangorana) Studded Sergeant (Athyma asura idita)
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Dot-Dash Sergeant (Athyma kanwa kanwa) Colour Sergeant (Athyma nefte subrata) Lance Sergeant (Athyma pravara helma) Malay Staff Sergeant (Athyma reta moorei)
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The Colonel (Pandita sinope sinope) Chocolate Sailor (Neptis harita harita) Common Sailor (Neptis hylas papaja) Grey Sailor (Neptis leucoporos cresina)
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Short-banded Sailor (Phaedyma columella singa) Burmese Lascar (Lasippa heliodore dorelia) Malayan Lascar (Lasippa tiga siaka) Common Lascar (Pantoporia hordonia hordonia)
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Perak Lascar (Pantoporia paraka paraka) Malay Viscount (Tanaecia pelea pelea) Horsfield's Baron (Tanaecia iapis puseda) Baron (Euthalia aconthea gurda)
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Green Baron (Euthalia adonia pinwilli) White Tipped Baron (Euthalia merta merta) Malay Baron (Euthalia monina monina) Yellow Archduke (Lexias canescens pardalina)
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Black Archduke (Lexias dirtea merguia) Archduke (Lexias pardalis dirteana)
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Subfamily Cyrestinae Subfamily Apaturinae
Little Maplet (Chersonesia peraka peraka) Purple Duke (Eulaceura osteria kumana) Courtesan (Euripus nyctelius euploeoides)
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Subfamily Charaxinae
Black Rajah (Charaxes solon echo) Plain Nawab (Polyura hebe plautus) Blue Nawab (Polyura schreiber tisamenus)
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Subfamily Danainae


Plain Tiger (Danaus chrysippus chrysippus)


Distinguished from Common and Black-veined Tigers by having the thinnest black veins on the wings. It has two forms - one with white hindwing, the other with orange hindwing.


Yellow form, Sentosa ©Sylvia Chua


White form, Sentosa ©Sylvia Chua


White form, Pasir Ris Park ©Lau SY

Common Tiger (Danaus genutia genutia)


It has thicker black veins on the wings than Plain Tiger, but thinner black veins than Black-veined Tigers. It has two forms - one with white hindwing, the other with orange hindwing.


Left: Changi Coast Road ©Lau SY. Right: Sentosa ©Sylvia Chua


Coney Island ©Tan KH

Black-veined Tiger (Danaus melanippus hegesippus)


Distinguished from Plain and Common Tigers by the thick black veins on the wings. Unlike the other two, it only has the white hindwing form.


Sentosa ©Sylvia Chua

Yellow Glassy Tiger (Parantica aspasia aspasia)


The Yellow Glassy Tiger is different from the Dark and Blue Glassy Tigers by having yellow on the hind wings.

Dark Glassy Tiger (Parantica agleoides agleoides)


It has unbroken blue stripes in the forewings, whereas those in the Blue Glassy Tiger are broken. It is common and may be found together with the Blue Glassy Tiger.


Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Sentosa ©Sylvia Chua


Pasir Ris Park. Left: ©Melvin Dionio. Right: ©Sylvia Chua

Blue Glassy Tiger (Ideopsis vulgaris macrina)


It has broken blue stripes in the forewings, whereas those in the Dark Glassy Tiger are unbroken. It is common and may be found together with the Dark Glassy Tiger.


©Eddy Lee


Left: East Coast. Right: Alexandra Hospital Butterfly Trail ©Sylvia Chua


Left: Singapore Quarry ©Tan KH. Right: Pasir Ris ©Sylvia Chua

Mangrove Tree Nymph (Idea leuconoe chersonesia)


It is larger than the Common Tree Nymph. It is distinctive because the black spots overlap and form an intertwined pattern. It is rare and exists in mangroves.


©Eddy Lee

Common Tree Nymph (Idea stolli logani)


It is among the larger butterflies in Singapore and are commonly seen in forests. They are easier identified by the black spots on white wings. It is common in forests.


Left: ©Tan GC. Right: MacRitchie ©Lau SY

King Crow (Euploea phaenareta castelnaui)


The largest of the eight butterflies named "crows", hence the name.


©Eddy Lee

Subfamily Satyrinae


Common Palmfly (Elymnias hypermnestra agina)



Left: Botanic Gardens ©Tan KH. Right: Mandai Orchid Garden ©Lau SY

Malayan Bush Brown (Mycalesis fusca fusca)

Distinguished by two red strips down the underwings.

Dark Brand Bush Brown (Mycalesis mineus macromalayana)


Distinguished by fewer eye-spots on the underside of the forewing, non-uniform eye-spots and thick white stripe down the underwing.


Neo Tiew Lane 2 ©Lau SY

Purple Bush Brown (Mycalesis orseis nautilus)


Distinguished by more uniform-sized eye-spots and thick white stripe down the underwing. The white stripe has a purplish colour, hence its name.

Dingy Bush Brown (Mycalesis perseus cepheus)


Distinguished by an eyespot obviously out-of-line with the rest of the larger eye-spots, non-uniform eye-spots and narrow white stripe down the underwing.

Long Brand Bush Brown (Mycalesis visala phamis)


Distinguished by five non-uniform eye-spots on the underside of the forewing and narrow white stripe down the underwing.


Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Worn individual at Sungei Tengah ©Lau SY


©Eddy Lee

Nigger (Orsotriaena medus cinerea)



Left: Central Catchment ©Eddy Lee. Right: Sengkang ©Tan KH

Common Five Ring (Ypthima baldus newboldi)


The "Rings" are so called for the yellow-rings around the black eye-spots on the underwing. They all have a large one on the forewing. Three of them are Five-ring, one Four-ring and one Three-ring. The number of rings is a little misleading. The rings are only counted for the underside of the hindwing and the smallest two rings are counted as one as they are often overlapping.


©Eddy Lee

Straight-banded Five Ring (Ypthima fasciata torone)


One of three with five rings. Distinguished by more rings than the rest and black bands on the underwing.

Malayan Five Ring (Ypthima horsfieldii humei)


One of three with five rings. Distinguished by five rings and black bands on the underwing.

Common Four Ring (Ypthima huebneri)


The only one of the "Rings" with four rings.


Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Upper Peirce ©Eddy Lee

Common Three Ring (Ypthima pandocus corticaria)


The only one of the "Rings" with three rings.

Subfamily Satyrinae


Common Faun (Faunis canens arcesilas)


All brown underwings with a row of white dots. Common Faun and Dark Blue Jungle Glory have round forewings. The latter is much more colourfully patterned on the underwing.


Left: Central Catchment. Right: Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee

Saturn (Zeuxidia amethystus amethystus)


Two eye-spots and a dark band on the hindwing. Not as plain as Common Duffer, but not as colourful as Palm King. All three have sharp forewings. Palm King has a pair of prominent eye-spots and a broad cinnamon band on the underwing. Saturn has less prominent eye-spots and a dark band on the underwing. Common Duffer is the plainest of the three, with even less prominent eye-spots and a paler dark band on the underwing.


Upper Peirce ©Eddy Lee

Subfamily Nymphalinae


Malayan Eggfly (Hypolimnas anomala anomala)


Distinguished by brown underwings with white spots lining the edge.


Left: Bukit Batok Nature Park. Right: Mandai Orchid Garden ©Lau SY

Common Eggfly (Hypolimnas bolina)


Two subspecies can be found in Singapore. Distinguished from the Malayan Eggfly by having white band instead of white spots on the underwings. The Great Eggfly (H. b. bolina) has well-separated thick white spots on the lower edge of the hindwings. The Jacintha Eggfly (H. b. jacintha) has thick white spots instead.


Left: Great Eggfly at Sungei Buloh ©Lau SY. Right: Jacintha Eggfly on Coney Island ©Tan KH


Left: Male. Right: Female variant. Jacintha Eggfly on Coney Island ©Tan KH

Danaid Eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus misippus)


Distinguished from the Common Eggfly by much thicker white parts on the underwings.

Peacock Pansy (Junonia almana javana)


It is orange all over with six eye-spots on the upperwings. On the underwings, there are two rings which overlaps. It is commonly seen.


©Eddy Lee


Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Chek Jawa ©Tan KH

Grey Pansy (Junonia atlites atlites)


It has grey upperwings with eye-spots lining the lower edges. The underwings are like the upperwings. This is the rarest of the pansies.


Left: Springleaf ©Tan KH. Right: Jurong Eco Garden ©Eddy Lee

Chocolate Pansy (Junonia hedonia ida)


As its name suggests, it is chocolate brown all over the upperwings with eye-spots lining the lower edges. The underwings are like the upperwings. It is commonly seen.


Alexandra Hospital Butterfly Trail ©Sylvia Chua


Left: Sentosa. Right: East Coast ©Sylvia Chua

Blue Pansy (Junonia orithya wallacei)


Male is blue and black with six eye spots on the upperwings. Female differs by being brown in place of the blue and black. Underwings are like the Peacock Pansy, except there are no overlapping rings. This is commonly seen.


Male ©Eddy Lee


Male ©Lau SY


Left: Female ©Tan GC. Right: ©Eddy Lee

Subfamily Heliconiinae


Tawny Coster (Acraea violae)


This species has only recently (2006) made it to Singapore.


Hort Park ©Melvin Dionio


Left: Lor Halus ©Tan KH. Right: Pulau Semakau ©Lau SY

Leopard Lacewing (Cethosia cyane)


Hort Park ©Melvin Dionio


Penang Butterfly Park ©Eddy Lee

Malay Lacewing (Cethosia hypsea hypsina)



Left: ©Eddy Lee. Right: Central Catchment ©Eddy Lee

Common Leopard (Phalanta phalantha phalantha)


It is orange with dark spots above, hence its name.


Jurong Eco Garden ©Eddy Lee

Cruiser (Vindula dejone erotella)


This common butterflies is orange for the male and dark with thick white band for the female.


Male ©Tan GC

Subfamily Limenitidinae


Commander (Moduza procris milonia)

Distinguished by a thick white radial band cutting through the forewings and hindwings.


Central Catchment ©Eddy Lee

Knight (Lebadea martha)


There are 2 subspecies parkeri and malayana.

The Colonel (Pandita sinope sinope)


Distinguished from the rest by the orange and black radial bands.

Chocolate Sailor (Neptis harita harita)


The Sailors looks like the Sergeants, but they have a faint pale band between the middle and lower white bands. Chocolate Sailor has chocolate wings (both upper and under).

Common Sailor (Neptis hylas papaja)


Common and Grey Sailors have black upperwings, but can be told apart by the orange underwings of the Common Sailor and the grey underwings of the Grey Sailor.


Central Catchment ©Lau SY

Grey Sailor (Neptis leucoporos cresina)


The upperwings look very similar to the Common Sailor, but can be distinguished by the grey underwings.


Central Catchment ©Eddy Lee

Short-banded Sailor (Phaedyma columella singa)


The upperwings look very similar to the Common Sailor, but can be distinguished by the grey underwings. Looks like the Common and Grey Sailors, but the upperwing pattern is also slightly different, in that the middle white band is not straight at both ends.


Left: Imbiah Terrace, Sentosa. Right: Alexandra Hospital Butterfly Trail ©Sylvia Chua

Burmese Lascar (Lasippa heliodore dorelia)


It has five black bands on the upperwings with the lowest two bands almost merging. Its underwing has five distinct black bands.

Malayan Lascar (Lasippa tiga siaka)


It has five black bands with the lowest two bands clearly distinct. It is more common than the rest of the lascars.


Pasir Ris Park ©Lau SY

Common Lascar (Pantoporia hordonia hordonia)


It is generally more squarish than the rest of the lascars and appears to have four black bands.

Perak Lascar (Pantoporia paraka paraka)


It generally shows wider orange bands than black bands on the upperwings. The underwing pattern is a replica of the upperwings, but duller.

Malay Viscount (Tanaecia pelea pelea)


Unlike the rest in this family, the Malay Viscount is a dull brownish butterfly with a white jagged radial band.


Upper Peirce ©Tan KH

Horsfield's Baron (Tanaecia iapis puseda)


The male has mostly black wings with the lower 1/3 blue in colour. The female looks like the Malay Viscount, but has more white on the terminal band.


Left: Bukit Batok Nature Park. Right: Chestnut area. ©Eddy Lee

Yellow Archduke (Lexias canescens pardalina)


There are three species of Archdukes in Singapore. They all look alike. The male has black upperwings with a bluish-greenish lower edge and orange underwings. The female has black black upperwings with whitish-yellowish spots and brown underwings with white spot and blue base.

Black Archduke (Lexias dirtea merguia)


Distinguished from the Archduke by the black upperpart of antennae.

Archduke (Lexias pardalis dirteana)


Distinguished from the Black Archduke by the orange upperpart of antennae.


Left male, right female ©Tan GC


Caterpillar ©Eddy Lee

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