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Saturday, October 27, 2012

Lycaenids

Family Lycaenidae


This is the second largest family of butterflies.

Subfamily Poritiinae

Malayan Gem (Poritia philota philota) Sumatran Gem (Poritia sumatrae sumatrae)
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Subfamily Miletinae

Moth Butterfly (Liphyra brassolis abbreviata) Bigg's Brownie (Miletus biggsii biggsii) Brown-band Brownie (Miletus gopara gopara) Great Brownie (Miletus symethus petronius )
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Lesser Darkie (Allotinus unicolor unicolor) Pale Mottle (Logania marmorata damis) Apefly (Spalgis epius epius)
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Subfamily Curetinae

Malayan Sunbeam (Curetis santana malayica) Sumatran Sunbeam (Curetis saronis sumatrana)
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Subfamily Lycaeninae

Common Hedge Blue (Acytolepis puspa lambi) Common Pierrot (Castalius rosimon rosimon) Elbowed Pierrot (Caleta elna elvira) Quaker (Neopithecops zalmora zalmora)
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The Malayan (Megisba malaya sikkima) Lesser Grass Blue (Zizina otis lampa) Pygmy Grass Blue (Zizula hylax pygmaea) Pale Grass Blue (Zizeeria maha serica)
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Cycad Blue (Chilades pandava pandava) Indian Cupid (Everes lacturnus rileyi) Gram Blue (Euchrysops cnejus cnejus) Silver Royal (Ancema blanka blanka)
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Ciliate Blue (Anthene emolus goberus) Pointed Ciliate Blue (Anthene lycaenina miya) Forget-Me-Not (Catochrysops strabo strabo) Silver Forget-Me-Not (Catochrysops panormus exiguus)
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Ancyra Blue (Catopyrops ancyra) Pea Blue (Lampides boeticus) Pitcher Blue (Virachola kessuma deliochus) Metallic Caerulean (Jamides alecto ageladas)
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Dark Caerulean (Jamides bochus nabonassar) Sky Blue (Jamides caeruleus caeruleus) Common Caerulean (Jamides celeno aelianus) Glistering Caerulean (Jamides elpis pseudelpis)
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Solider Caerulean (Jamides malaccanus malaccanus) White Fourline Blue (Nacaduba angusta kerriana) Rounded Sixline Blue (Nacaduba berenice icena) Opaque Sixline Blue (Nacaduba beroe neon)
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Two Spotted Line Blue (Nacaduba biocellata) Dark Malayan Sixline Blue (Nacaduba calauria malayica) Transparent Sixline Blue (Nacaduba kurava nemana) Large Fourline Blue (Nacaduba pactolus odon)
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Small Fourline Blue (Nacaduba pavana singapura) Jewel Fourline Blue (Nacaduba sanaya elioti) Pointed Line Blue (Ionolyce helicon merguiana) Barred Line Blue (Prosotas aluta nanda)
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Tailless Line Blue (Prosotas dubiosa lumpura) Banded Line Blue (Prosotas lutea sivoka) Common Line-Blue (Prosotas nora superdates) Dingy Line Blue (Petrelaea dana dana)
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Long Banded Silverline (Spindasis lohita senama) Black Banded Silverline (Spindasis syama terana) Aberrant Oakblue (Arhopala abseus abseus) Large Metallic Oakblue (Arhopala aedias agnis)
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Purple Broken-band Oakblue (Arhopala alitaeus pardenas) Malayan Bushblue (Arhopala ammon ammon) Broad Yellow Oakblue (Arhopala amphimuta amphimuta) Small Tailless Oakblue (Arhopala antimuta antimuta)
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Vinous Oakblue (Arhopala athada athada) Tailed Disc Oakblue (Arhopala atosia malayana) Long-celled Oakblue (Arhopala aurea ) Centaur Oakblue (Arhopala centaurus nakula)
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Common Disc Oakblue (Arhopala epimuta epiala) Green Oakblue (Arhopala eumolphus maxwelli) Major Yellow Oakblue (Arhopala major major) Mutal Oakblue (Arhopala muta maranda)
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Malayan Oakblue (Arhopala myrzala lammas) Raffles's Oakblue (Arhopala pseudomuta pseudomuta) Sylhet Oakblue (Arhopala silhetensis adorea) Green Suffused Oakblue (Arhopala trogon)
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Darky Plushblue (Flos anniella anniella) Plain Plushblue (Flos apidanus saturatus) Bifid Plushblue (Flos diardi capeta) Shining Plushblue (Flos fulgida singhapura)
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The Red-edge (Semanga superba deliciosa) Acacia Blue (Surendra vivarna amisena) Malayan Silverstreak (Iraota distanti distanti) Scarce Silverstreak (Iraota rochana boswelliana)
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Common Posy (Drupadia ravindra moorei) Pygmy Posy (Drupadia rufotaenia rufotaenia) Dark Posy (Drupadia theda thesmia) Gray Tinsel(Catapaecilma major emas)
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Yamfly (Loxura atymnus fuconius) The Plane (Bindahara phocides phocides) Common Imperial (Cheritra freja frigga) Branded Imperial (Eooxylides tharis distanti)
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Great Imperial (Jacoona anasuja anasuja) Grand Imperial (Neocheritra amrita amrita) Green Imperial (Manto hypoleuca terana) Fluffy Tit (Zeltus amasa maximinianus)
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Common Tit (Hypolycaena erylus teatus) Brown Tit (Hypolycaena thecloides thecloides) Narrow Spark (Sinthusa nasaka amba) Ambon Onyx (Horaga syrinx maenala)
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White Royal (Pratapa deva relata) Peacock Royal (Tajuria cippus maxentius) Influent Royal (Tajuria dominus dominus) Felder's Royal (Tajuria mantra mantra)
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Banded Royal (Rachana jalindra burbona) Chocolate Royal (Remelana jangala travana) Golden Royal (Pseudotajuria donatana donatana) Eliot's Cornelian (Deudorix elioti)
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Cornelian (Deudorix epijarbas cinnabarus) Scarlet Flash (Rapala dieneces dieneces) Yellow Flash (Rapala domitia domitia) Common Red Flash (Rapala iarbus iarbus)
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Slate Flash (Rapala manea chozeba) Copper Flash (Rapala pheretima sequeira) Suffused Flash (Rapala suffusa barthema) Indigo Flash (Rapala varuna orseis)
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Common Hedge Blue (Acytolepis puspa lambi)

It has medium black spots on the hind and fore underwings. There are 8 species of these blues in Singapore. They are similar to each other in that they have pale underwings with black spots.

Common Pierrot (Castalius rosimon rosimon)

It has many big black spots on the underwing.

Elbowed Pierrot (Caleta elna elvira)

It has the most black on the underwing than the rest. In fact, some of the black spots are so large that they connect to form an elbow.

Quaker (Neopithecops zalmora zalmora)

Like the Common Hedge Blue, but it has a medium black spot on the hind underwings.

The Malayan (Megisba malaya sikkima)

Like the Common Hedge Blue, but it has a few medium black spots on the hind underwings.

Lesser Grass Blue (Zizina otis lampa)

The underwings are pale with small black spots, like the Pale and Pygmy Grass Blues. However, it differs from them by having less distinct bands or spots on the trailing edge of the underwings.

Botanic Gardens ©Sylvia Chua


©Eddy Lee


Fresh wings on left, worn wings on right ©Sylvia Chua

Pygmy Grass Blue (Zizula hylax pygmaea)

Like the Lesser Grass Blue, but the trailing edge of the underwings is lined by a few dark bands.

Pale Grass Blue (Zizeeria maha serica)

Like the Lesser Grass Blue, but the trailing edge of the underwings is lined by dark spots.

Botanic Gardens: ©Sylvia Chua. ©Melvin Dionio

Cycad Blue (Chilades pandava pandava)

Also known as Plains Cupid. Looks like Gram Blue and Indian Cupid. All three have four black spots, in addition to mainly two black spots which are surrounded by an orange colour, all on the underside of the hindwing. It can be distinguished from them by the orange colour around more than two black spots on the underside of the hindwings. Some specimens may show five spots instead of four.

Botanic Garden ©Lau SY

Gram Blue (Euchrysops cnejus cnejus)

Similar to Indian Cupid, but two distinct orange patches can still be made out.

©Eddy Lee

Indian Cupid (Everes lacturnus rileyi)

Similar to Cycad Blue but the two black spots in the orange colour are prominent and the orange is more extensive than Gram Blue's.

Silver Royal (Ancema blanka blanka)

It lacks the four black spots of the above three species, but has orange colour around the two hind black spots on the underside of the hindwing. The underwings are silvery in colour.

Ciliate Blue (Anthene emolus goberus)

It has only one lower black spot instead of four and there is only one black spot in the orange area.

Pointed Ciliate Blue (Anthene lycaenina miya)

It has only one higher black spot instead of four and there is only one black spot in the orange area.

Forget-Me-Not (Catochrysops strabo strabo)

It has only two black spot instead of four and there is only one black spot in the orange area.

Silver Forget-Me-Not (Catochrysops panormus exiguus)

It is similar to Forget-Me-Not, but the orange is less extensive and does not stretch to the bottom of the hindwing.

Ancrya Blue (Catopyrops ancyra)

Differs from those above by having wide stripes on the underwings.

Pea Blue (Lampides boeticus)

Also known as Long-tailed Blue. It looks like Ancrya Blue, but differs by having black eyes.

©Eddy Lee

Pitcher Blue (Virachola kessuma)

Differs from Ancrya and Pea Blues above by having white stripes on the underwings.

Common Caerulean (Jamides celeno aelianus)

This species has much more white dashes on the underwings and these dashes form long bands. These bands are also more uniformly spread.

©Eddy Lee

Metallic Caerulean (Jamides alecto ageladas)

Similar to Common Caerulean, but it has two white dashes missing from the top edge of the under forewings. Also, some of the white bands on the under hindwing intersect to form acute angles.

Dark Caerulean (Jamides bochus nabonassar)

It has much thinner white dashes and the dashes do not form long bands.

Solider Caerulean (Jamides malaccanus malaccanus)

It has the thickest and most straight white bands. It also lacks the black linings on the edge of the wings.

Glistering Caerulean (Jamides elpis pseudelpis)

Similar to Metallic Caerulean, but the dashes on the under hindwings form long bands and do not intersect to form acute angles.

Sky Blue (Jamides caeruleus caeruleus)

Similar to Metallic Caerulean, but the dashes gradually gets thinner closer to the body.

Common Disc Oakblue (Arhopala epimuta epiala)

There are 18 species of Oakblues (genus Arhopala) in Singapore. They have blue colour around the black ocellus.

Lower Peirce ©Melvin Dionio

Branded Imperial (Eooxylides tharis distanti)

It differs from the Common Imperial by having more black patterns in the white region.

©Eddy Lee

Common Red Flash (Rapala iarbus iarbus)

There are 7 species of Flashes (genus Rapala) and 2 species of Cornelians (genus Deudorix) in Singapore.

Chestnut Area ©Eddy Lee

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