Monday, December 31, 2012

Singapore Mammals

Class Mammalia

House Shrew (Suncus murinus) Southeast Asian White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura fuliginosa)

Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica)

Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) Three-striped Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata) Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha) Malay Civet (Viverra tangalunga)

Asian Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus) Smooth Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

Dugong Elephant
Dugong (Dugong dugon) Asian Elephant (Elaphas maximus)

Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris)
Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus) Fraser's Dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens) Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata)
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Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis) Bryde's Whale (Balaenoptera edeni)
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Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

Even-toed Ungulates
Wild Pig (Sus scrofa) Sambar (Rusa unicolor) Lesser Mousedeer (Tragulus kancil) Greater Mousedeer (Tragulus napu)

Odd-toed Ungulates
Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus )

Asian House Mouse (Mus castaneus) Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Asian House Rat (Rattus tanezumi) Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans)
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Malaysian Wood Rat (Rattus tiomanicus) Singapore Rat (Rattus annandalei) Brown Spiny Rat (Maxomys rajah) Red Spiny Rat (Maxomys surifer)
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Plantain Squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) Variable Squirrel (Callosciurus finlaysonii) Slender Squirrel (Sundasciurus tenuis) Cream-coloured Giant Squirrel (Ratufa affinis)
Shrew-faced Ground Squirrel (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus) Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel (Hylopetes spadiceus) Horsfield's Flying Squirrel (Iomys horsfieldii) Red Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista)
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Malaysian Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura)

Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus) Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) Dusky Fruit Bat (Penthetor lucasi) Common Long-tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus minimus)
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Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea) Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola) Black-bearded Tomb Bat (Taphozous melanopogon) Pouched Tomb Bat (Saccolaimus saccolaimus)
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Southeast Asian Hollow-faced Bat (Nycteris tragata) Lesser False Vampire (Megaderma spasma) Glossy Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus lepidus) Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus)
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Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus) Bicolored Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros bicolor) Hardwicke's Woolly Bat (Kerivoula hardwickii) Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola)
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Grey Large-footed Myotis (Myotis adversus) Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat (Scotophilus kuhlii) Lesser Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) Greater Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris robustula)
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Javan Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) Narrow-winged Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus stenopterus) Brown Tube-nosed Bat (Murina suilla) Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus)
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Treeshrews Colugos
Common Treeshrew (Tupaia glis) Malayan Colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus)

Sunda Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang) Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Banded Leaf Monkey (Presbytis femoralis)


Order Primates

This order contains lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes. There are 3 species in Singapore - Sunda Slow Loris, Long-tailed Macaque and Banded Leaf Monkey.

Sunda Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang)

It is nocturnal and rarely encountered.

Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

One of the most common mammals in Singapore. It is also called the Crab-eating Macaque.

Admiralty Park ©Tan KH

Banded Leaf Monkey (Presbytis femoralis)

The only other monkey that can still be found in Singapore. There are about 40 of them in the Central Catchment.

Upper Seletar ©Con Foley


Order Dermoptera

This order contains only 1 family (Cynocephalidae) with 2 species - Philippines Colugo (Cynocephalus volans) and Malayan Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). Colugos are also called Flying Lemurs because it is able to glide from tree to tree. It is, however, not a lemur at all.

There is 1 species in Singapore, namely the Malayan Colugo. Although uncommonly seen, it is doing quite well in the Central Catchment. It is also known as Sunda Colugo or Malayan Flying Lemur.

Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee

Brown variant. With baby at Seletar ©Eddy Lee

Mother and child at Central Catchment ©Lau JS

Wild colugos within Singapore Zoo compound ©Tan KH

Hindhede Nature Park ©Tan KH

With a baby ©Tan GC. Central Catchment ©Tan KH


Order Scandentia

This order contains 20 species of treeshrews. They resemble shrews, but are actually more related to primates. There is 1 species in Singapore, namely Common Treeshrew (Tupaia glis).

Hindhede ©Tan KH


Order Chiroptera

This order contains the flying mammals - bats. There are 24 or more species in Singapore.

Bats flying around at Punggol Park ©Tan KH

Megabats (Suborder Megachiroptera)

Megabats are also called Fruit Bats. This suborder contains a single family (Family Pteropodidae). They are fruit/nectar eaters as opposed to the microbats (Suborder Microchiroptera), which are mainly insect eaters (although some feed on blood, fish or nectar).

There are 5 confirmed species in Singapore. 2 others - Island Flying Fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) and Short-nosed Fruit Bat (Cynopterus sphinx) - need to be confirmed.
  1. Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus) - Rare
  2. Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) - Common
  3. Dusky Fruit Bat (Penthetor lucasi) - Uncommon
  4. Common Long-tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus minimus) - Rare
  5. Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea) - Common

Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus)

This is the largest fruit bat that can be found in Singapore.

In captivity in the Zoo ©Tan KH

Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis)

This is the most common fruit/nectar-eating bat in Singapore. It is also known as the Common Fruit Bat. It roosts under broad leaves (e.g. palm, banana leaves) and usually occurs in a group. Although mainly nocturnal, it can sometimes be seen in broad daylight. The female has a yellow collar, while the male has a red collar.

Female (left) and Male ©Eddy Lee

Roosting: Under building ©Eddy Lee. Under palm tree ©Tan GC

Wild population in the Zoo compound ©Tan KH

Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea)

This is a dark-coloured bat with greyish belly.

Rifle Range ©Eddy Lee

Rifle Range ©Danny Lau

Microbats (Microchiroptera)

Microbats are smaller than the megabats. They are mainly insect eaters, although some eat blood, fish, nectar, fruits and even small mammals. Most use echolocation to detect prey. In 2005, it was thought that only 15 species of microbats are left in Singapore1,2. However, with recent discovery and rediscoveries3,4,5,6, our microbat diversity has took a leap to 19 species.

This raises hope for the rediscovery of the 6 extirpated species: Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus sedulus), Lesser Brown Horseshoe Bat (R. stheno), Fawn Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros cervinus), Ridley's Roundleaf Bat (H. ridleyi), Singapore Whiskered Bat (Myotis oreias) and Wrinkle-lipped Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon plicatus). Of these, the Singapore Whiskered Bat is the most interesting, being the only species thought to be endemic to Singapore7.

There are now 19 species in Singapore.
  1. Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola) - Rare
  2. Black-bearded Tomb Bat (Taphozous melanopogon) - Rare
  3. Pouched Tomb Bat (Saccolaimus saccolaimus) - Common
  4. Southeast Asian Hollow-faced Bat (Nycteris tragata) - Rare
  5. Lesser False Vampire (Megaderma spasma) - Rare
  6. Glossy Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus lepidus) - Common
  7. Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus) - Rare
  8. Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus) - Rare
  9. Bicolored Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros bicolor) - Rare
  10. Hardwicke's Woolly Bat (Kerivoula hardwickii) - Rare
  11. Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola) - Common
  12. Grey Large-footed Myotis (Myotis adversus) - Common
  13. Lesser Asiatic Yellow House Bat (Scotophilus kuhlii) - Common
  14. Lesser Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris pachypus) - Rare
  15. Greater Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris robustula) - Uncommon
  16. Javan Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) - Rare
  17. Narrow-winged Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus stenopterus) - Rare
  18. Brown Tube-nosed Bat (Murina suilla) - Rare
  19. Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus) - Rare

Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola)

Sheath-tailed Bats are so called because the tail is hidden in the skin between the tails. This species is the smallest of them all, hence its name.

Malaysia. Left: ©Con Foley. Right: ©Eddy Lee

Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus)

Horseshoe bats are so called because of the facial pattern which looks like a horseshoe. This species has yellow ears.

Malaysia ©Con Foley

Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola)

This is a common insectivorous bat in Singapore.

Whiskered Myotis at Woodlands ©Tan KH


3. Noteworthy microchiropteran records from the Bukit Timah and Central Catchment Nature Reserves, Singapore
4. The Naked Bulldog Bat, Cheiromeles torquatus in Singapore ― past and present records, with highlights on its unique morphology (Microchiroptera: Molossidae)
5. The Javan pipistrelle, Pipistrellus javanicus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Singapore
6. The narrow-winged pipistrelle, Pipistrellus stenopterus (Dobson) in Singapore (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)