Thursday, December 27, 2012

Singapore Amphibians

Class Amphibia

Caecilians (Order Gymnophiona)

Asian Caecilians (Family Ichthyophiidae)

Sumatran Striped Caecilian (Ichthyophis paucisulcus) Singapore Black Caecilian (Ichthyophis singaporensis)
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Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)

Megophryid Frogs (Family Megophryidae)

Black-eyed Litter Frog (Leptobrachium nigrops) Malayan Horned Frog (Megophrys nasuta)

Toads (Family Bufonidae)

Asian Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) Four-ridged Toad (Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus) Saint Andrew's Cross Toadlet (Pelophryne signata)
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True Frogs (Family Ranidae)

Crab-eating Frog (Fejervarya cancrivorus) Field Frog (Fejervarya limnocharis) Malayan Giant Frog (Limnonectes blythii) Malesian Frog (Limnonectes malesianus)
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Masked Swamp Frog (Limnonectes paramacrodon) Rhinoceros Frog (Limnonectes plicatellus) Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog (Occidozyga sumatrana) Golden-eared Rough-sided Frog (Hylarana baramica)
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Common Greenback (Hylarana erythraea) G√ľnther's Frog (Hylarana guentheri) Masked Rough-sided Frog (Hylarana laterimaculata) Copper-cheeked Frog (Chalcorana labialis)
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American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

Tree Frogs (Family Rhacophoridae)

Spotted Tree Frog (Nyctixalus pictus) Four-lined Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax) Blue-legged Tree Frog (Rhacophorus cyanopunctatus) Thorny Tree Frog (Theloderma horridum)
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Narrow-mouthed Frogs (Family Microhylidae)

Black-spotted Sticky Frog (Kalophrynus limbooliati) Banded Bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra) Painted Chorus Frog (Microhyla butleri)
Dark-sided Chorus Frog (Microhyla heymonsi) East Asian Ornate Chorus Frog (Microhyla fissipes) Bornean Narrow-mouthed Frog (Microhyla borneensis)
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Megophryid Frogs (Family Megophryidae)

There are 2 species in Singapore - Black-eyed Litter Frog and Malayan Horned Frog.

Black-eyed Litter Frog (Leptobrachium nigrops)

It is so called for the black eyes and because it can be found in leaf litters of forests.

Black-eyed Litter Frog at Dairy Farm ©Eddy Lee

Malayan Horned Frog (Megophrys nasuta)

It is so called for the sharp 'eyelids'.

Malayan Horned Frog in Singapore Zoo ©Tan KH

Toads (Family Bufonidae)

Toads are usually distinguished from frogs by their warty skin. Three species can be found in Singapore. The most commonly encountered is the Asian Toad. The other two, Four-ridged Toad and Saint Andrew's Cross Toadlet (Pelophryne signata), are uncommonly seen.

Asian Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus)

It was known as Bufo melanostictus. It is a greyish-brownish toad with warty skin. It is very common in urban areas.

Asian Toad. Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Chinese Garden ©Lau SY

Asian Toad at Old Choa Chu Kang Road ©Tan KH

Four-ridged Toad (Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus)

It is a reddish toad with four distinctive ridges on the head. It hides in leaf litters.

Young Four-ridged Toad ©Lau JS

True Frogs (Family Ranidae)

There are many families of frogs and toads. The true frogs are the biggest family of amphibians in Singapore. There are 13 species here - 12 of which are native, while the American Bullfrog is the only introduced species. The latter existed in Singapore because of the frog leg industry. It is now common in ponds. The others are mainly found in our forests now.

Field Frog (Fejervarya limnocharis)

It is so called because it can sometimes be found in fields.

Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee

Malayan Giant Frog (Limnonectes blythii)

It is also known as Blyth's Giant Frog.

Malayan Giant Frog in Singapore Zoo ©Tan KH

Malesian Frog (Limnonectes malesianus)

It is an uncommon forest frog in Singapore. It has a distinctive "W" on the upper back. It was formerly called Rana malesiana.

©Tan GC. Sime Forest ©Lau JS

Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog (Occidozyga sumatrana)

As its name suggests, it has a yellow belly.

Common Greenback (Hylarana erythraea)

It looks like a Copper-cheeked Frog, but the dark stripe on the head side extends all the way down the flank. Above this black stripe is a pale stripe. The back is green, hence its name. It is also known as the Green Paddy Frog or Rana erythraea.

Sungei Buloh. ©Ben Lee. ©Tan KH

Copper-cheeked Frog (Chalcorana labialis)

It is a common forest frog in Singapore. It is so called for the brown patch behind the eye.

Typical Copper-cheeked Frog at Lower Peirce. Paler specimen ©Tan GC

American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

It is a common urban frog in Singapore. It is not native, but came from the frog leg industry.

With Blue Sprite Damselfly at Bishan Park ©Eddy Lee. Young at Fort Canning ©Lau SY

Sungei Buloh ©Tan KH

Tree Frogs (Family Rhacophoridae)

These are so called because they live in trees. Four species can be found in Singapore - Spotted, Four-lined, Blue-legged and Thorny. The most common is the Four-lined Tree Frog.

Four-lined Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax)

It is so called for the four brown lines down its back and its arboreal habit.

Hindhede Nature Park ©John Spencer. Rifle Range ©Eddy Lee

Narrow-mouthed Frogs (Family Microhylidae)

These frogs are so called because some of them have a narrow mouth. However, there are also typical looking frogs within this family. The most common is the introduced urban Banded Bullfrog.

Black-spotted Sticky Frog (Kalophrynus limbooliati)

Formerly thought to be K. pleurostigma, but is now known to be K. limbooliati instead. This is a forest frog. It has a distinctive shape with a distinctive black spot on each side of the lower flank.

Black-spotted Sticky Frog at Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee

Banded Bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra)

This is a common urban frog in Singapore. It is not native. The young looks different from the adult and has a wholly black back and lacks the thick side bands.

Adult Banded Bullfrog at Sungei Buloh ©Tan KH

Painted Chorus Frog (Microhyla butleri)

This small frog can be found in forests as well as parks. It has a distinctive back pattern.

Painted Chorus Frog at Mandai ©Eddy Lee


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