Thursday, December 27, 2012

Singapore Amphibians

Class Amphibia

Caecilians (Order Gymnophiona)

Asian Caecilians (Family Ichthyophiidae)

Sumatran Striped Caecilian
Ichthyophis paucisulcus
Singapore Black Caecilian
Ichthyophis singaporensis
no photo no photo

Frogs and Toads (Order Anura)

Megophryid Frogs (Family Megophryidae)

Black-eyed Litter Frog
Leptobrachium nigrops
Malayan Horned Frog
Megophrys nasuta

Toads (Family Bufonidae)

Asian Toad
Duttaphrynus melanostictus
Four-ridged Toad
Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus
Saint Andrew's Cross Toadlet
Pelophryne signata
no photo

True Frogs (Family Ranidae)

Crab-eating Frog
Fejervarya cancrivorus
Field Frog
Fejervarya limnocharis
Malayan Giant Frog
Limnonectes blythii
Malesian Frog
Limnonectes malesianus
no photo
Masked Swamp Frog
Limnonectes paramacrodon
Rhinoceros Frog
Limnonectes plicatellus
Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog
Occidozyga sumatrana
Golden-eared Rough-sided Frog
Hylarana baramica
no photo no photo no photo
Common Greenback
Hylarana erythraea
G√ľnther's Frog
Hylarana guentheri
Masked Rough-sided Frog
Hylarana laterimaculata
Copper-cheeked Frog
Chalcorana labialis
no photo no photo
American Bullfrog
Rana catesbeiana

Tree Frogs (Family Rhacophoridae)

Spotted Tree Frog
Nyctixalus pictus
Four-lined Tree Frog
Polypedates leucomystax
Blue-legged Tree Frog
Rhacophorus cyanopunctatus
Thorny Tree Frog
Theloderma horridum
no photo no photo no photo

Narrow-mouthed Frogs (Family Microhylidae)

Black-spotted Sticky Frog
Kalophrynus limbooliati
Banded Bullfrog
Kaloula pulchra
Painted Chorus Frog
Microhyla butleri
Dark-sided Chorus Frog
Microhyla heymonsi
East Asian Ornate Chorus Frog
Microhyla fissipes
Bornean Narrow-mouthed Frog
Microhyla borneensis
no photo no photo no photo

Megophryid Frogs (Family Megophryidae)

There are 2 species in Singapore - Black-eyed Litter Frog and Malayan Horned Frog.

Black-eyed Litter Frog (Leptobrachium nigrops)

It is so called for the black eyes and because it can be found in leaf litters of forests.

Black-eyed Litter Frog at Dairy Farm ©Eddy Lee

Malayan Horned Frog (Megophrys nasuta)

It is so called for the sharp 'eyelids'.

Malayan Horned Frog in Singapore Zoo ©Tan KH

Toads (Family Bufonidae)

Toads are usually distinguished from frogs by their warty skin. Three species can be found in Singapore. The most commonly encountered is the Asian Toad. The other two, Four-ridged Toad and Saint Andrew's Cross Toadlet (Pelophryne signata), are uncommonly seen.

Asian Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus)

It was known as Bufo melanostictus. It is a greyish-brownish toad with warty skin. It is very common in urban areas.

Asian Toad. Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Chinese Garden ©Lau SY

Four-ridged Toad (Ingerophrynus quadriporcatus)

It is a reddish toad with four distinctive ridges on the head. It hides in leaf litters.

Young Four-ridged Toad ©Lau JS

True Frogs (Family Ranidae)

There are many families of frogs and toads. The true frogs are the biggest family of amphibians in Singapore. There are 13 species here - 12 of which are native, while the American Bullfrog is the only introduced species. The latter existed in Singapore because of the frog leg industry. It is now common in ponds. The others are mainly found in our forests now.

Field Frog (Fejervarya limnocharis)

It is so called because it can sometimes be found in fields.

Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee

Malayan Giant Frog (Limnonectes blythii)

It is also known as Blyth's Giant Frog.

Malayan Giant Frog in Singapore Zoo ©Tan KH

Malesian Frog (Limnonectes malesianus)

It is an uncommon forest frog in Singapore. It has a distinctive "W" on the upper back. It was formerly called Rana malesiana.

Malesian Frog. Left: ©Tan GC. Right: Sime Forest ©Lau JS

Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog (Occidozyga sumatrana)

As its name suggests, it has a yellow belly.

Yellow-bellied Puddle Frog at Peirce area ©Ben Lee

Common Greenback (Hylarana erythraea)

It looks like a Copper-cheeked Frog, but the dark stripe on the head side extends all the way down the flank. Above this black stripe is a pale stripe. The back is green, hence its name. It is also known as the Green Paddy Frog or Rana erythraea.

Common Greenback at Sungei Buloh. Left: ©Ben Lee. Right: ©Tan KH

Copper-cheeked Frog (Chalcorana labialis)

It is a common forest frog in Singapore. It is so called for the brown patch behind the eye.

Left: Typical Copper-cheeked Frog at Lower Peirce. Right: Paler specimen ©Tan GC

American Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

It is a common urban frog in Singapore. It is not native, but came from the frog leg industry.

Left: American Bullfrog with Blue Sprite Damselfly at Bishan Park ©Eddy Lee. Right: Young American Bullfrog at Fort Canning ©Lau SY

Tree Frogs (Family Rhacophoridae)

These are so called because they live in trees. Four species can be found in Singapore - Spotted, Four-lined, Blue-legged and Thorny. The most common is the Four-lined Tree Frog.

Four-lined Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax)

It is so called for the four brown lines down its back and its arboreal habit.

Four-lined Tree Frog. Left: Hindhede Nature Park ©John Spencer. Right: Rifle Range ©Eddy Lee

Narrow-mouthed Frogs (Family Microhylidae)

These frogs are so called because some of them have a narrow mouth. However, there are also typical looking frogs within this family. The most common is the introduced urban Banded Bullfrog.

Black-spotted Sticky Frog (Kalophrynus limbooliati)

Formerly thought to be K. pleurostigma, but is now known to be K. limbooliati instead. This is a forest frog. It has a distinctive shape with a distinctive black spot on each side of the lower flank.

Black-spotted Sticky Frog at Chestnut Trail ©Eddy Lee

Banded Bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra)

This is a common urban frog in Singapore. It is not native. The young looks different from the adult and has a wholly black back and lacks the thick side bands.

Adult Banded Bullfrog at Sungei Buloh ©Tan KH

Painted Chorus Frog (Microhyla butleri)

This small frog can be found in forests as well as parks. It has a distinctive back pattern.

Painted Chorus Frog at Mandai ©Eddy Lee


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